“Significant regions of the Middle East and North Africa may become uninhabitable because of the rise in both the temperature and humidity. Africa by mid-century will have more people than either China or India, and by the end of the century more people than India and China combined.”
That sort of doesn’t make sense: It can’t simultaneously be uninhabitable and the most populous continent on Earth. Higher temperatures cause higher humidity and therefore more rain: a warmer Earth is a wetter Earth, and large parts of Africa are fertile given rain. For there to be more people in Africa “than India and China combined,” there has to be a doubling of agricultural output in Africa, and this is easily achievable given stable government, good governance and the rule of law. Climate change is not the threat here: if anything, it will help by bringing longer growing seasons and more rain. The lack of modern farming techniques, industrial infrastructure and peace are the cause of most of Africa’s problems. Endless wars and inter-tribal violence, plus corruption and cronyism in African States keep them poor and unable to cope with droughts. Give them peace, respect for private property, and freedom from government interference and corruption, and with a little aid from the West, Africa can feed itself several times over, and export the surplus to the rest of the world.
Aid at the moment is likely to be destroyed in the next war. Rebels blow up infrastructure that keeps their people alive. Peace is the first need for the people of Africa, then good governance and the rule of law.