I support Capitalism because it is the only known system that generates wealth and incentivises people to work harder in order to get ahead.
The problem for America is that Democrats support Welfare, Unions, minimum wage, UBI, and other socialist programs, while the Republicans oppose all the same things: what is needed is a middle way where basic requirements for the poorest are provided by taxing the wealthy, as long as it is kept to a minimum that doesn’t destroy the free market of supply and demand.
Taking your suggestions one at a time:
“1) the government can give everyone or supplement everyone to reach the minimum level to live ($31,200). This is welfare, UBI, whatever you want to call it.” This will pay people to stay at home doing nothing, and will reduce workplace participation. Young men paid sit-down money typically don’t get jobs and join gangs instead.
“2) the government can impose $15 an hour minimum wage, with all the commensurate increases of everyone else following.” Yes it can, and I support this measure, because everyone in full-time work should be better off than beneficiaries: the minimum amount to pay rent and put food on the table. Australia has a national minimum wage, “currently $18.29 per hour or $694.90 per 38 hour week (before tax). Casual employees covered by the national minimum wage also get at least a 25% casual loading.” The sky has not fallen, but Australia’s unemployment is higher (5.5%) than America (4.1%) as a result. I think it is still worth doing as the “working poor” are the most deserving demographic in society: if you work, you should not be poor. That you can work full time and still be poor is repugnant to me: I’ll wear a “Socialist” minimum wage to address this injustice.
“3) the government can allow workers (all workers) to unionize if they wish, without repercussions, to negotiate better wages, hours and conditions of employment.” Unions are corrupt mafias run by criminals who are parasites on both workers and employers: I don’t favour Unionising workplaces. I can still remember being beaten up by 30 Union thugs in the work car-park after speaking against going on strike at a Union meeting 30 years ago.
“4) Can you think of any other way to truly satisfy the working masses of Americans that isn’t theoretical, ethereal or otherwise in the “trickle down bullshit” mode?” Bring manufacturing back from overseas: Trump is already doing it. It is protectionist, anti-Globalisation, anti-free trade, but it will be good for American workers. He just added 30% tariff on Korean washing machines and Chinese Solar Panels, which should see more of both built in the USA.
The flip side is that for every American job created, one will be lost in China, Korea, India or Mexico. Arguably they need it worse than we do. The downside is that we priced our own workers off the market, and the consequences for working class Americans has been dire. On the other hand Globalisation has been the greatest force for good in the Developing World over the last three decades, lifting billions out of poverty, and it is much better to allow poor countries to trade their way to wealth, rather than send them foreign aid. For this reason, I’m against Trump on this one, but he is doing what he promised, and you have to admire a politician who keeps his election promises.
“1) how do other countries do it and succeed? Why are people happier in Finland, Norway, Sweden, etc?” All these countries nationalised their North Sea oil, and use the oil revenue to fund free education and healthcare for their citizens. They still have higher taxes and more generous welfare systems than America, but without North Sea Oil, the whole system would collapse. While the oil lasts, their citizens are happier than most.